Addition: We use connecting words to join clauses and sentences that add information.

as well/ too – come at the end of a clause

eg. Alice works at the supermarket during the day. She has a night job, too/ as well.

also – at the beginning or the middle of a clause

eg. The weather is really unpredictable these days. There can also be storms, so be careful./ Also there can be storms so be careful.

not only with but

eg. The city is not only crowded but extremely polluted.

what’s more/ besides – at the beginning of a sentence

eg. I don’t have time to wash the dishes. What’s more/ Besides, it’s your turn, anyway.

NB: We don’t use also, too or as well in negative clauses. We use either.

eg.I haven’t been to Bodrum or Izmir either.


the moment/ as soon as – at the beginning of a clause to say something will happen immediately after something else has happened. When we are talking about the future we use the Present Simple after the connecting words rather than the future form.

eg.As soon as/ The moment I get paid, I’ll take you out for dinner

When we are talking about the past we use Past Simple after the connecting words.

eg. As soon as/ The moment I got home, I went straight to bed.

ever since – at the beginning of a clause means continually since that time.

eg. Ever since I met him he’s been unemployed.

first/ originally – at the beginning of a clause before the main verb or after the verb ‘be’ to talk about something as it was in the The house first/ originally built in the 1920s was later used as a police station.

from then on/ ever since then – at the beginning of a sentence means continually since the time indicated in a previous sentence or clause

eg. I saw my first ballet when I was six. From then on/ Ever since then it’s been my dream to become a ballerina.

While/ As – at the beginning of clauses means that something happens during the same time as something else.

eg. While I was walking down the street I saw my friend walking her dog.

Afterwards/ Then – at the beginning of sentences to talk about something that happens after the time mentioned.

eg. We went out for lunch on our first date. Afterwards,/ Then we went for a romantic stroll on the beach.

Meanwhile – at the beginning of a sentence to talk about an event that happens while something else is happening.

eg. I anxiously waited for the phone to ring. Meanwhile, I tried to read a book but I couldn’t concentrate.


although/ even though – to contrast two clauses in the same sentence, at the beginning or middle of the sentence.

eg. Although/ Even though Tanya can cook, she usually eats out.

whereas – to introduce a subordinate clause which you are comparing to something you said in the main clause, at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.

eg. My boyfriend is having trouble quitting smoking, whereas I gave up quite easily two years ago.

however – to contrast two sentences, at the beginning of the second sentence.

eg. I like coffee. However, if I drink too much I have a bad reaction to it.but – to contrast two clauses in a sentence.

We don’t use but at the beginning of sentences in formal written English.

eg. Most people like summer, but I prefer winter.


unless – in conditionals to mean ‘if not’

eg. I won’t go outside unless it stops raining.

in case – to talk about something we do to prepare for a possible situation in the future

eg. Take some water in case you get thirsty.

otherwise – to talk about an undesirable outcome if something else doesn’t happen.

eg. We must save water, otherwise there will be a world shortage.

provided/ providing/ as long as / assuming – can be used instead of ‘if’ in conditionals

eg. I would take a year off and go travelling, providing I had enough money.

provided/ providing/ as long as – can also be used to mean ‘only if this happens’

eg. Pitt bulls can be loyal pets, providing they are trained properly.

whether – as an alternative for ‘if’ in conditionals when two or more alternatives are mentioned.

eg. Whether the death penalty is right or wrong, there are many who protest against it.

imagine/ suppose/ supposing – mean ‘form a picture in your head about what something could be like’

eg. Suppose you get stuck on a desert island, what would you do?

imagine/ suppose/ supposing – instead of ‘if’ in questions

eg. Imagine there was no need for money, what kind of world would we live in?

Reason and Result:

because/ because of – to give the reason for something, at the beginning of a clause of reason

eg. I lent Steve ten dollars because he didn’t have money for the train.

because of is followed by a noun clause

eg. Because of volcano ash, there were no flights in or out of Europe.

as/ since – can be used to mean because

eg. Since you are tired, I’ll talk to you tomorrow.

so/ as a result/ therefore/ consequently – to introduce the result of a situation.

eg. My English is really bad. As a result, he didn’t understand me.

due to/ owing to – to introduce the result of a situation, at the beginning of a phrase, followed by a noun phrase

eg. Owing to bad weather yesterday we didn’t go cycling.


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